The mechanisms of action of the psychostimulants are different. While methylphenidate mainly blocks the reuptake of dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NA) into the presynapses, amphetamine mainly promotes the release of NA and DA by blocking the transporters and additionally emptying the monoaminergic presynaptic vesicles. The two psychostimulants increase the extrasynaptic DA and NA concentration.
The mechanism of action of Modafinil has not yet been fully clarified. Modafinil indirectly modulates excitatory (glutamate, histamine, dopamine, orexin) and inhibitory (-aminobutyric acid, GABA, norepinephrine) neurotransmitters.
What Is Modafinil?
Modafinil is an anti-fatigue stimulant. Frequent urge to sleep during the day cannot be cured permanently. Many patients cannot do without medication – for them, Modafinil has long been standard. The drug is so popular because, apart from headache, occasional nausea, and elevated blood pressure reactions, Modafinil side effects are barely noticeable, and it is more tolerable than amphetamines. Modafinil does not act like an amphetamine in test-tube experiments, but its effects are similarly stimulating in humans – this applies particularly to possible doping effects.
What Is Vyvanse?
Lisdexamfetamine was developed by the pharmaceutical manufacturer New River Pharmaceuticals Inc. In 2007, the British pharmaceutical company Shire plc (now Takeda Pharmaceutical) took over the rights to the substance. Lisdexamfetamine (LDX) was approved in Switzerland in March 2014 in the form of capsules (Elvance). A bioequivalent variant is marketed in the United States under the trade name Vyvanse. In contrast to other ADHD medications, the dosage form is not immediate-release. The continuous release is achieved with the conversion of the prodrug. Vyvanse side effects are harder than those of its contenders, and Vyvanse dosage is higher. Lisdexamfetamine is legally an anesthetic and therefore requires a prescription.
Comparison of the Two Drugs
Lisdexamfetamine is an active ingredient that belongs to the group of amphetamines, i.e. the so-called psychostimulants. Such drugs have a stimulating effect on the organism. Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug: it must first be broken down into the amino acid lysine and dexamfetamine in the body. Dexamfetamine then develops the expected effects of the drug.
The best-known and most prescribed drug for ADHD is Modafinil. Pure Modafinil is not a prodrug, it works directly without chemical conversion. However, the therapeutic effects only last for 8-10 hours, so the medication has to be taken several times a day. The effects of lisdexamfetamine, on the other hand, are only noticeable after 1-2 hours, but it also lasts much longer, namely for about 12 hours.
The non-medical use of prescription drugs, including the one aimed at increasing performance in people without ADHD, is increasing, and the consequences of such a pattern of abuse, like the genetic and pathophysiological properties of ADHD in adults, are still poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is partly the reason for the ongoing controversy as to whether the behavioral patterns typical of ADHD, which some only consider being variants of the norm, are given a pathological assessment.
Symptoms of impulsiveness, inattentiveness, and hyperactivity, which already appear in childhood should be cured. While experts initially assumed that the disorder was limited to childhood, several long-term follow-up studies have now come to the conclusion that around 40 to 60 percent of children with ADHD are also affected as adults. Compared to the former, the symptoms in the latter are more or less significantly different, partly due to a greater decline in the hyperactivity components compared to the inattentiveness components.
Vyvanse ought to be utilized as a major component of a complete treatment program if conduct quantifies alone and treatment with methylphenidate have demonstrated to be deficient. A far-reaching treatment program for the treatment of ADHD can incorporate mental, instructive, and social measures.
These, usually more clearly persistent, symptoms of inattentiveness can have a negative effect on adults in many areas of life and wherever it is a question of concentrating on tasks to the end or meeting deadlines. This often results in considerable professional or financial, but also interpersonal problems as well as existing mental disorders such as anxiety or depression.
In a representative sample of 18- to 44-year-old Americans, 5.4 percent of men and 3.2 percent of women met the ADHD criteria. While at least 4 times more boys than girls are affected by ADHD in children, the gender ratio in adults is almost balanced.
Treatment with Vyvanse is the decision that must be based on a very careful evaluation of the seriousness of the patient’s side effects. Stimulants are not expected for use in patients who have auxiliary natural manifestations as well as other essential mental issue, including psychoses. Suitable educational measures are basic, and psychological care is often helpful.
Mechanism of Action
Adverse effects of both amphetamine and methylphenidate along with sleep deprivation, dry mouth, loss of appetite, weight reduction, cerebral pain, despondency, and uneasiness, can manifest differently with different patients. Stimulants are contraindicated in hypertension, psychosis, or tics. Because of the until now conflicting information in regards to cardiovascular dangers of stimulants, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) suggests not utilizing these prescriptions in patients with serious heart issues or those for whom elevated blood pressure or fast heart rate would be problematic, and otherwise, both parameters periodically (every 3 months).
How Often Can I Take This?
The dosage must be individually adapted to the therapy requirements and the response of the respective patient. Vyvanse should be administered orally in the lowest possible dose. Vyvanse can be taken with or without meals. A Vyvanse capsule can be swallowed whole. However, the capsules can also be opened and the powder contained therein can be sprinkled in soft foods such as yogurt or in a glass of water or orange juice, e.g. in patients who have difficulty swallowing an entire capsule. Clumped powder particles from the capsule can be crushed with a spoon in the soft food or in the liquid, if necessary. Mix the content until it is completely distributed. The mixture with liquid or soft food should then be taken immediately and completely by the patient and should never be stored.
The drug breaks up totally after circulation. In the wake of taking the blend, a filmy coating can stay in the glass. Make sure you take all the content of the capsule. Patients should take one capsule a day unless their doctor sets a different dosing regimen for them.
How Much Does Modafinil Cost?
Modafinil is available under the following names at the price of:
- Modalert 200mg – 20$
- Modvigil 200mg – 20$
- Waklert 150mg – 30$
How Modafinil Works
Modafinil promotes alertness and motor activity. It has effects on various neurotransmitter systems; the exact mechanism of action is not known. Modafinil keeps you awake and can be misused as a performance enhancer, as a smart drug, party drug, and doping agent. It is on the World Anti-Doping Agency doping list.
How Vyvanse Works
After oral administration, lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is quickly absorbed within the gastrointestinal tract, utilizing the high-limit transporter protein PEPT1 as a mediator.
Comparing Vyvanse & Modafinil
The long-term benefit or damage has not been yet adequately investigated. Clinical studies on medication for ADHD in adulthood are mainly limited to short periods and mostly younger people.
This means that with stimulants, including amphetamines, there is a potential danger of misuse, abuse, dependence, or use for non-helpful purposes that doctors ought to consider when recommending such medication. Patients with substance misuse or a background marked by developing a habit ought not to be prescribed stimulants.
There is significant abuse in amphetamines. Cases of tolerance, extraordinary mental reliance, and serious social handicap have happened. There have been reports of patients who have expanded their doses to the strengths several times higher than prescribed. Abrupt discontinuation after continuous use in high dosages prompts outrageous tiredness and mental melancholy. Rest EEG additionally shows changes. The manifestations of interminable inebriation with amphetamines incorporate serious dermatoses, severe sleep deprivation, peevishness, hyperactivity, and character changes. The most serious symptom of interminable inebriation is a psychosis that is regularly clinically indistinct from schizophrenia. Essentially, Modafinil is milder in its impact.